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History of How The Britishers established their influence on North East India..

Before the Anglo Burmese War the Britishers had never thought about expanding into the North East India. But when the Burmese kingdom attacked the Ahom kingdom of Assam and massacred many people their king fled to Rangpur and later West Bengal and requested the Britisherers stationed their to help. The Britishers themselves being threatened by the growing power and expansion of the Burmese kingdom decided to help.

The anglo Burmese war came to an end after the fall of Rangur with thesigning of a treaty known as treaty of Yandaboo.This treaty divided Assam into 2 parts Upper Assam and Lower Assam. With the upper part being ruled by the puppet Ahom King and the Lower part by the Britishers. As tea and oil were discovered in Upper Assam, they removed the Ahom king and established their rule. From here they gradually penetrated and annexed the hill tracts.

1.Sadiya: Sadiya was ruled by a Khampti chief Sadiya Khowa Gohain(previously the Ahom used to rule). He was recognized by the British Government as lawful ruler. He was not to pay any tribute to the British but was to maintain a force of 200 hundred men for the British who were trained by the Assam light infantry. Similarly Singpho Chief were exempted from paying any tribute but was to supply 80 men whenever necessary.

2.Matak: This territory lied between Brahmaputra and Buridihing river and was ruled by bar Senapati. In 1826, a treaty was concluded between the Matak kingdom and Britishers based on which the Matak chief had to pay 12000 rupees a year and 300 troops to the Britishers.

3. Sikkim: The East India Company first contacted with Sikkim in 1814-15. They signed a treaty on 1817. The British Govt. intervened in many Lepcha war against Nepal, Bhutan and Tibet in favour of the Sikkimese king. Finally, Sikkim became a protectorate of British Govt. John Claude White was posted to Sikkim as Political officer in 1889.

4.Meghalaya: prior to British, the state was ruled by many indigenous village chief. Among them the Jaintia kingdom was the most powerful and struggled the most against the British. The Britishers first came in contact with the inhabitants when it was granted the Diwani of Sylhet. In 1835, the British annexed the JAintia and the Khasi hills with headquarters at Jaintiapur and Cherrapunji respectively.

5.Naga Hills: Nagas frequently raided and block the route between Assam and Manipur. So, the British suppressed and controlled them. Angami territory were annexed in 1875. The same year the Lotha Naga territory too falled. Mr. Damant (Political Officer) and his escorts were killed at khonoma by the Nagas. So Sir James jonstone took 200 Manipur forces in kohima and controlled the situation there. The Naga headmen agreed to pay revenue and supply labour to the British Govt. as per British-Naga agreement of 1890.

6. Mizo hills: The Mizo chiefs frequently raided and kidnapped people from British territories. So the British organized a number of expeditions against the Mizos. Finally they established an outpost on Mizo hills in 1889 Ad by creating North and South Lusai hill districts with headquarters at Aizawl and Lungei respectively.the former was placed under Assam and later under Chittagong Division. The Chin Hill Regulation Act 1886 put restriction on the movement of outsiders in Mizoram which bring stability in the Mizo areas.

7.Manipur: After the treaty of Yandaboo the British frequently contacted the Manipur kingdom ruled by Gambir Singh. The Britishers wanted to keep Manipur an independent kingdom so as to create a buffer. But in 1891, they fought a bitter war in which the Manipur kingdom was defeated and the Britishers seized the power and annexed the state but kept it as an independent state.

8.Cachar: The Cachar chief Tularam who was commanding Officer of foot soldiers of King Govind Chandra of Cachar was declared king of North Cachar. David Scott bought an agreement between Tularam and Govind Chandra. But in 1830, Tularam killed Govind Chandra at the instigation of Gambir Singh, King of 1832, Cachar was annexed and Tularam was arrested. He surrendered his territory and agreed to pay a tribute. He was reduced to a titular chief.

9. Tripura: The British recognized the Kindom of Tripura as a princely state till India's indeoendence. But the kings were a puppet of the British. During the reign of Krishna Manikya, the British conquered the state. Snce then the state's status was reduced to a subject of the British Empire.